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The incidence for Influenza-like Illness (ILI) can be downloaded as CSV files (importable into Excel). The number of active participants, the number of ILI onsets and the calculated incidence are listed for each week. When using these data please attribute it to Influenzanet as follows: "Data Source: Influenzanet (//".

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To obtain access to the more detailed Influenzanet data, please contact the national organisers of the Influenzanet systems. Any privacy sensitive information, such as email-addresses, will not be shared with third parties.

Influenzanet welcomes collaboration with scientists and researchers outside our consortium. If you are interested, in particular in international Influenzanet data, please, write to daniela . paolotti @ isi . it. Your application is subject to approval from the Influenzanet Science Committee, which aims to react within short notice to your request.

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Welcome to

Project Information The Team The Data Publications

Analyses performed by the team, from Inserm - Sorbonne Université, in collaboration with Santé publique France.

Project Information

The Influenzanet participatory surveillance system is based on online survey technology to conduct syndromic surveillance through self-reported symptoms volunteered by participants resident in the Influenzanet countries. These platforms collect background demographic and risk-factor data from participants upon enrollment, capture their weekly symptoms, and report analyzed surveillance results.

The aim of Influenzanet is to establish a standardized syndromic surveillance system across European countries from both a technological and epidemiological point of view.

Its crowdsourced data offer flexibility for the exploration of different ILI or ARI case definitions, provide detailed information to profile the population under surveillance, to estimate vaccine coverage or assess ILI-associated behaviors. Its standardized framework and centralized European database allow for country-level analyses and rapid extension to the European level, maintaining identical criteria and definitions.

Indicators for Influenza-like Illness and COVID-19 based on data collected through the Influenzanet platforms are included in the FluewNews weekly bulletin jointly published by ECDC and WHO Europe.

Since its launch in 2009, Influenzanet has doubled the number of participating countries, now representing 36% of the 28 member states and more than half (58%) of the population in the European Union. Its web approach has the ability to generate data from the general population and not only from medically attended ILI.

Influenzanet was established in Europe in 2009 and included 5 countries, 4 of which (the Netherlands, Belgium, Portugal, and Italy) already had prior web- based participatory surveillance experience. Influenzanet was created in the scope of the European Commission FP7 program project Epiwork, coordinated by ISI Foundation.

Over the years, Influenzanet has been sustained by internal resources of the partners. More recently, Influenzanet has received support by the European Commission with the following grants:



Are People Optimistically Biased about the Risk of COVID-19 infection? Lessons from the first wave of the pandemic in Europe

K. McColl, M. Debin, C. Souty, C. Guerrisi, C. Turbelin, A. Falchi, I. Bonmarin, D. Paolotti , C. Obi, J. Duggan, Y. Moreno , A. Wisniak, A. Flahault, T. Blanchon, V. Colizza, J. Raude

International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19 (1), 436 (2021)

Underdetection of cases of COVID-19 in France threatens epidemic control

Pullano, G., Di Domenico, L., Sabbatini, C.E. et al.

Nature 590, 134–139 (2021).

SARS-CoV-2 infection in London, England: changes to community point prevalence around lockdown time, March-May 2020.

Edelstein, Michael et al.

Journal of epidemiology and community health vol. 75,2 (2021): 185-188.


Risk factors associated with the incidence of self-reported COVID-19-like illness: Data from a web-based syndromic surveillance system in the Netherlands

McDonald, S., Van den Wijngaard, C., Wielders, C., Friesema, I., Soetens, L., Paolotti, D., Van Hoek, A.

Epidemiology and Infection, 149, E129.



Factors associated with influenza-like-illness: a crowdsourced cohort study from 2012/13 to 2017/18.

C. Guerrisi, M. Ecollan, C. Souty, L. Rossignol, C. Turbelin, M. Debin, T. Goronflot, P.Y. Boëlle, T. Hanslik, V. Colizza, T. Blanchon.

BMC Public Health 19:879 (2019)

Population perception of mandatory childhood vaccination programme before its implementation, France, 2017.

P. Mathieu, A. Gautier, J. Raude, T. Goronflot, T. Launay, M. Debin, C. Guerrisi, C. Turbelin, T. Hanslik, C. Jestin, V. Colizza, T. Blanchon, L. Rossignol.

Euro Surveill. 24(25) (2019)

Global flu view: a platform to connect crowdsourced disease surveillance around the world.

A.W. Crawley, D. Paolotti, C. Dalton, J. Brownstein, M. Smolinski.

International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 79:7 (2019)


A topological data analysis approach to influenza-like-illness.

J.P. Costa, P. Škraba, D. Paolotti, R. Mexia.

Proceedings of the ACM SIGKDD Workshop on Epidemiology meets Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery (epiDAMIK) (2018)

Healthcare-seeking behaviour in case of influenza-like illness in the French general population and factors associated with a GP consultation: an observational prospective study.

M. Ariza, C. Guerrisi, C. Souty, L. Rossignol, C. Turbelin, T. Hanslik, V. Colizza, T. Blanchon.

BJGP Open, 1(4): bjgpopen17X101253 (2018)

Research ethics in the European Influenzanet consortium: Scoping review.

L.D. Geneviève, T. Wangmo, D. Dietrich, O. Woolley-Meza, A. Flahault, B.S. Elger.

JMIR Public Health Surveillance, 4(4):e67 (2018)

Self-Swabbing for virological confirmation of influenza-like illness among an Internet-based cohort in the UK during the 2014-2015 flu season: Pilot study.

C. Wenham, E.R. Gray, C.E. Keane, M. Donati, D. Paolotti, R. Pebody, E. Fragaszy, R.A. McKendry, W.J. Edmunds.

Journal of Medical Internet Research, 20(3):e71 (2018)

The potential value of crowdsourced surveillance systems in supplementing sentinel influenza networks: the case of France.

C. Guerrisi, C. Turbelin, C. Souty, C. Poletto, T. Blanchon, T. Hanslik, I. Bonmarin, D. Levy-Bruhl, V. Colizza.

Eurosurveillance, 23(25) (2018)


Combining participatory influenza surveillance with modeling and forecasting: Three alternative approaches.

J.S. Brownstein, S. Chu, A. Marathe, M.V. Marathe, A.T. Nguyen, D. Paolotti, N. Perra, D. Perrotta, M. Santillana, S. Swarup, M. Tizzoni, A. Vespignani, A.K.S. Vullikanti, M.L. Wilson, Q. Zhang.

JMIR Public Health and Surveillance, 3(4):e83 (2017)

Disease severity determines health-seeking behaviour amongst individuals with influenza-like illness in an internet-based cohort.

M. Peppa, W.J. Edmunds, S. Funk.

BMC infectious diseases, 17(1):238 (2017)

Influenzanet: Citizens among 10 countries collaborating to monitor influenza in Europe.

C. E. Koppeschaar, V. Colizza, C. Guerrisi, C. Turbelin, J. Duggan, W.J. Edmunds, C. Kjelsø, R. Mexia, Y. Moreno, S. Meloni, D. Paolotti, D. Perrotta, E. van Straten, A.O. Franco.

JMIR Public Health and Surveillance, 3(3):e66 (2017)

Participatory online surveillance as a supplementary tool to sentinel doctors for influenza-like illness surveillance in Italy.

D. Perrotta, A. Bella, C. Rizzo, D. Paolotti.

PloS one, 12(1):e0169801 (2017)

Using participatory Web-based surveillance data to improve seasonal influenza forecasting in Italy.

D. Perrotta, M. Tizzoni, D. Paolotti. In Proceedings of the 26th International Conference on World Wide Web, pages 303-310 (2017)


First nationwide web-based surveillance system for influenza-like illness in pregnant women: participation and representativeness of the French G-GrippeNet cohort.

P. Loubet, C. Guerrisi, C. Turbelin, B. Blondel, O. Launay, M. Bardou, T. Blanchon, I. Bonmarin, F. Goffinet, P. Ancel, V. Colizza, T. Hanslik, S. Kernéis.

BMC Public Health, 16(1):253 (2016)

Influenza during pregnancy: Incidence, vaccination coverage and attitudes toward vaccination in the French web-based cohort G-GrippeNet.

P. Loubet, C. Guerrisi, C. Turbelin, B. Blondel, O. Launay, M. Bardou, F. Goffinet, V. Colizza, T. Hanslik, S. Kernéis.

Vaccine, 34(20):2390 (2016)

Influmeter – an online tool for self-reporting of influenza-like illness in Denmark.

C. Kjelsø, M. Galle, H. Bang, S. Ethelberg, T.G. Krause.

Infectious Diseases, 48(4):322 (2016)

Participatory syndromic surveillance of influenza in Europe.

C. Guerrisi, C. Turbelin, T. Blanchon, T. Hanslik, I. Bonmarin, D. Levy-Bruhl, D. Perrotta, D. Paolotti, R. Smallenburg, C.E. Koppeschaar, A.O. Franco, R. Mexia, W.J. Edmunds, B. Sile, R. Pebody, E. van Straten, S. Meloni, Y. Moreno, J. Duggan, C. Kjelsø, V. Colizza.

Journal of Infectious Diseases, 214(suppl 4):S386-S392 (2016)


Opinion about seasonal influenza vaccination among the general population 3 years after the A(H1N1)pdm2009 influenza pandemic.

K. Boiron, M. Sarazin, M. Debin, J. Raude, L. Rossignol, C. Guerrisi, D. Odinkemelu, T. Hanslik, V. Colizza, T. Blanchon.

Vaccine, 33(48):6849 (2015)

Social data mining and seasonal influenza forecasts: The FluOutlook platform.

Q. Zhang, C. Gioannini, D. Paolotti, N. Perra, D. Perrotta, M. Quaggiotto, M. Tizzoni, A. Vespignani.

In Joint European Conference on Machine Learning and Knowledge Discovery in Databases, pages 237-240. Springer (2015)

Ten-year performance of influenzanet: ILI time series, risks, vaccine effects, and care-seeking behaviour.

S.P. van Noort, C.T. Codeço, C.E. Koppeschaar, M. Van Ranst, D. Paolotti, M.G.M. Gomes.

Epidemics, 13:28-36 (2015)


Association between recruitment methods and attrition in Internet-based studies.

P. Bajardi, D. Paolotti, A. Vespignani, K. Eames, S. Funk, W. J. Edmunds, C. Turbelin, M. Debin, V. Colizza, R. Smallenburg, C.E. Koppeschaar, A.O. Franco, V. Faustino, A. Carnahan, M. Rehn, F. Merletti, J. Douwes, R. Firestone, L. Richiardi.

PloS one, 9(12):e114925 (2014)

Determinants of follow-up participation in the Internet-based European influenza surveillance platform Influenzanet.

P. Bajardi, A. Vespignani, S. Funk, K. T. Eames, W. J. Edmunds, C. Turbelin, M. Debin, V. Colizza, R. Smallenburg, C. E. Koppeschaar, A.O. Franco, V. Faustino, A. Carnahan, M. Rehn, D. Paolotti.

Journal of medical Internet research, 16(3):e78 (2014)

Effectiveness of 2012-2013 influenza vaccine against influenza-like illness in general population: Estimation in a French web-based cohort.

M. Debin, V. Colizza, T. Blanchon, T. Hanslik, C. Turbelin, and A. Falchi.

Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics, 10(3):536-543 (2014)


Incidence and risk factors for influenza-like-illness in the UK: online surveillance using Flusurvey.

A.J. Adler, K.T. Eames, S. Funk, W.J. Edmunds.

BMC infectious diseases, 14(1):232 (2014)

The representativeness of a European multi-center network for influenza-like-illness participatory surveillance.

P. Cantarelli, M. Debin, C. Turbelin, C. Poletto, T. Blanchon, A. Falchi, T. Hanslik, I. Bonmarin, D. Levy-Bruhl, A. Micheletti, D. Paolotti, A. Vespignani, J. Edmunds, K. Eames, R. Smallenburg, C.E. Koppeschaar, A.O. Franco, V. Faustino, A. Carnahan, M. Rehn, V. Colizza.

BMC public health, 14(1):1 (2014)

Utilizing syndromic surveillance data for estimating levels of influenza circulation.

O. Patterson-Lomba, S.P. van Noort, B.J. Cowling, J. Wallinga, M.G.M. Gomes, M. Lipsitch, E. Goldstein. American journal of epidemiology, 179(11):1394-1401 (2014)

Web-based participatory surveillance of infectious diseases: the influenzanet participatory surveillance experience.

D. Paolotti, A. Carnahan, V. Colizza, K. Eames, W.J. Edmunds, M.G.M. Gomes, C.E. Koppeschaar, M. Rehn, R. Smallenburg, C. Turbelin, S. van Noort and A. Vespignani.

Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 20(1):17-21 (2014)


Eight years of the Great Influenza Survey to monitor influenza-like illness in Flanders.

Y. Vandendijck, C. Faes, and N. Hens.

PLoS One, 8(5):e64156 (2013)

Evaluating the feasibility and participants’ representativeness of an online nationwide surveillance system for influenza in France.

M. Debin, C. Turbelin, T. Blanchon, I. Bonmarin, A. Falchi, T. Hanslik, D. Levy-Bruhl, C. Poletto, V. Colizza, Y. Moreno.

PLoS ONE, 8(9);e73675 (2013)


Rapid assessment of influenza vaccine effectiveness: Analysis of an internet-based cohort.

K.T.D. Eames, E. Brooks-Pollock, D. Paolotti, M. Perosa, C. Gioannini and W.J. Edmunds.

Epidemiology and Infection, 140(7):1309-1315 (2012)

Using the Internet to estimate influenza vaccine effectiveness.

W.J. Edmunds, S. Funk.

Expert review of vaccines, 11(9):1027-1029 (2012)


Using an online survey of healthcare-seeking behaviour to estimate the magnitude and severity of the 2009 H1N1v influenza epidemic in England.

E. Brooks-Pollock, N. Tilston, W.J. Edmunds, K.T. Eames.

BMC infectious diseases, 11(1):1 (2011)


Internet-based monitoring system for influenza-like illness: H1N1 surveillance in Italy.

D. Paolotti, C. Gioannini, V. Colizza, A. Vespignani.

In Proceedings of the 3rd International ICST Conference on Electronic Healthcare for the 21st century. Casablanca, pages 13-15 (2010)

Internet-based surveillance of influenza-like-illness in the UK during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic.

N.L. Tilston, K.T. Eames, D. Paolotti, T. Ealden, W.J. Edmunds.

BMC Public Health, 10(1):650 (2010)


Internet-based monitoring of influenza-like illness in the general population: Experience of five influenza seasons in The Netherlands.

I.H.M. Friesema, C.E. Koppeschaar, G.A. Donker, F. Dijkstra, S.P. van Noort, R. Smallenburg, W. van der Hoek, M.A.B. van der Sande.

Vaccine, 27(45):6353-6357 (2009)


Gripenet: an internet-based system to monitor influenza-like illness uniformly across Europe.

S.P. van Noort , M. Muehlen, H. Rebelo de Andrade, C.E. Koppeschaar, J.M. Lima Lourenço, M.G.M. Gomes. Euro Surveill,12(7):E5-6 (2007)


Internet-based monitoring of influenza-like illness (ILI) in the general population of the Netherlands during the 2003-2004 influenza season.

R.L. Marquet, A.I.M. Bartelds, S.P. van Noort, C.E. Koppeschaar, J. Paget, F.G. Schellevis, J. van der Zee.

BMC public health, 4;6:242 (2006)